Measuring Similarity in the Spatial Distribution of Trips
Many geographical studies are concerned with the spatial distribution of movements; These movements include, among others, personal trips for various purposes, commodity flows, migration flows, telephone calls, and the like. The term "flow pattern" is usually employed in connection with the spatial distribution of movements. When personal trips are considered an important question in the analysis of travel patterns is the degree of similarity in travel behavior between population groups or between zones. This article presents a method for measuring similarity in travel patterns based on the analysis of an O-D matrix. A measure of similarity is derived logically from the definition of "travel patterns" and "similarity in travel patterns". The properties of the similarity index are investigated and finally an example of an application is presented.
Attneave, F., (1950),”Dimensions of Similarity", American Journal of Psychology, 6:5 pp. 516-556.
Boyce, D. E., (1956), The Effect of Direction and Length of Person Trips on Distribution Models, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Philadelphia.
Feller, W., (1971), An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Application, Vol. II, New York: John Wiley.
Fischer, M. M., (1980), “Regional Taxanomy: A Comparison of Some Hierarchic and Non-Hierarchic Strategies", Regional Science and Urban Economics, 10, pp. 503-537.
Guttman, L., (1968), "A General Nonmetric Technique for Finding the Smallest Coordinate Space for Configuration of Points", Psychometrica, 31, pp, 469--506.
Goddard, J. B., (1970), "Functional Regions within the City Center: A Study by Factor Analysis of Taxi Flows in Central London", Transaction, The Institute of British Geographers, 49, pp. 161-182.
Goddard, J. B., (1973) “Office Linkages and Location”, Progress in Planning, Vol. 1 part 2.
Kansky, K. J., (1967), "Travel Patterns of Urban Residents”, Transportation Science, 1, pp. 261-85.
Kfir, G., (1979), Similarity in Commuting Patterns: A Quantitative Analysis of Spatial Variations in Commuting Patterns in the Tel-Aviv Metropolitan Area, Ph,D, Thesis, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (in Hebrew).
Kravls, I., (1968), “International and Intertemporal Comparisons of the Structure of Consumption", In Clark, L. H., (ed.), Consumer Behavior, New York: Harper.
Kruskal, J. B., (1964A), "Multidimensional Scaling: A Numerical Method", Psychometrica, 29, pp. 1-27.
Kruskal, J. B., (1964B), "Multidimensional Scaling by Optimizing Goodness of Fit, Psychometrica, 29, pp. 115-129.
Musgrove, P., (1977), "The Structure of Household Spending in South American Cities, Index of Dissimilarity and Causes of Inter-City Differences", Review of Income and Wealth, ser. 73 No. 4, pp, 365-384.
Notes, C. B., (1972), "Access to Jobs and the Willingness to Travel", Highway Research Record, 392, pp, 143-146.
rrom, H. C., and Wright C. C., (1976), "The Spatial Distribution of Journey-to-work Trips in Greater London", Transportation, 5, pp. 192-222.
Savage., R., and Deutsch, K. w., (1960), ”A Statistical Model of the Gross Analysis of transaction Flows, Econometrica, 28, pp. 551-572.
Smith, R. H. T., (1970), "Concepts and Methods in Commodity Flow Analysis", Economic Geography. 46, pp, 404-416.
Torgersson, W. S., (1958), Theory and Methods of Scaling, New-York: John Wiley.
Wheeler, J. O., (1970), "The Structure of Metropolitan Work Trips", The Professional Geographer, 22, pp. 152-158.
Wiseman, R.F., (1975), "Location in the City as a Factor in Trip Making Patterns", Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geographie, 66, pp. 167-177.
- The contributor(s) (authors) warrant that the entire work is original and unpublished; it is submitted only to this Journal and all text, data, figures/tables or other illustrations included in this work are completely original and unpublished, and these have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere in any form or media whatsoever.
- The contributor(s) warrant that the work contains no unlawful or libelous statements and opinions and liable materials of any kind whatsoever, does not infringe on any copyrights, intellectual property rights, personal rights or rights of any kind of others, nor contains any plagiarized, fraudulent, improperly attributed materials, instructions, procedures, information or ideas that might cause any harm, damage, injury, losses or costs of any kind to person or property.
- The contributor(s) retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Geography Research Forum may disseminate the content of the publications and publications’ Meta data in text, image, or other print and electronic formats to providers of research databases (e.g. EBSCO, GeoBase, JSTOR) to facilitate publications' exposure.