The Value Stretch Model—Tooling for Long-Time Horizon Lifestyle Studies

  • Baruch A. Kipnis University of Haifa
Keywords: Lifestyle Attributes, Value Stretch Model, Lifestyle Profiles, Long-View Range, Planning


Most lifestyle studies have dealt with lifestyle attributes as a one-dimensional phenomenon. However, many aspects of human life should be viewed on a long-range continuum, extending over most a person's life time. This paper is taking this direction using the 'value stretch model: It is believed that the model, besides its explanatory value, could be used as a planning tool for a long-range view of lifestyle aspects and aspirations. Using data from eight hundred and six questionnaires collected in three case studies covering seventy-two lifestyle attributes, this paper reveals eight lifestyle profiles and examines their relative value/order and their role in our lives.


Aspis, Y. (1991) The Value Stretch Model in Defining Critical Needs for Public Policy. Case Study: Housing Needs for Arab Villagers in Israel. MSc. Thesis, the Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, The Technion, Haifa.

Ateljevic, J. and Doorne, S. (2000) Staying within the fence: Lifestyle entrepreneurship in tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism,5:378-392.

Beaverstock, ].v., Hubbard, P.J. and Short ].R. (2002) Getting away with it? The changing geographies of the global super-rich. Research Bulletin 93,

Biggs,S., Bernard, M., Kingstone, P. and Nettleton, H. (2000) Lifestyles of belief: Narrative and culture in a retirement community. Aging and Society, 6:649-672.

Blumen, O. (2004) Fathers' work and children's distinctive lifestyle: children of Israeli high-tech men. Geography Research Forum, 24:77-99.

Cooper, J., Reyley, T. and Smyth, A. (2001) Contemporary lifestyles and the Implications for sustainable development policy: Lessons from the UK's most car dependent city, Belfast. Cities, 18,2:103-113.

Della Fave, R. (1974) Success values: Are they universal or class-differentiated? American Journal of Sociology, 79:153-169.

Eduards, B. (2000) To be within. Metropolis, pp. 86-90. (Hebrew)

Goldman, A. (2001). Lifestyle Attributes, Are They Class and Place Differentiated? A Value Stretch Analysis of a Case Study in Haifa, Israel. MA Thesis, Department of Geography, the University of Haifa.

Goldman, A. and Kipnis, B. A. (2003) Similarities and differences in lifestyle attributes of residents of Haifa, Israel. Bitachon Sotzialy, 64:83-99. (Hebrew)

Hirshman, C. (2001) Exit strategies. Human Resources Magazine, 12:52-57.

Kaman, D.J.E, Strijker, D. and Sijtsma, EJ (1998) A 'Reverse Network Engineering' framework to develop tourism using lifestyle approach. Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geograjie, 89:310-319.

Kipnis, B. A. (1978) Housing aid policy for Arab villagers: A pilot study. Haifa: The University of Haifa, Yesum Ltd. (Hebrew)

Kipnis, B. A. (1982). Planning Housing Aid Policy for the Urbanizing Arab Villages of Israel Monograph Series on the Middle East, No.1, Haifa: University of Haifa, the Jewish-Arab Center.

Kipnis, B. A. (2002) The Global Crisis and Israel's High-Tech Industry. Research Bulletin #72, in Ga WC site:

Kipnis, B. A. (2003) Lifestyle attributes of young Israelis on the eve of the 21 st century: Their weights, gaps and time horizons in the value stretch model, and their planning applications. Ofoqim Ba-Geograjia, 55:5-23. (Hebrew)

Kipnis, B. A. (2004a) Post-industrial lifestyles attributes of work and leisure of Israelis at the End of the 1990s: A value stretch analysis. In Le Heron, R. and Harrington, ].W (eds.) New Economic Spaces: New Economic Geographies (forthcoming).

Kipnis, B. A. (2004b) Lifestyle-An editorial introduction. Geography Research Forum, 24: 1-20

Kipnis, B. A. and Aspis, Y. (1996) Defining needs for neighborhood services in Arab urbanizing settlements of Israel: Application of the value stretch model in social policy planning. Bitachon Sotzialy, 3:31-51. (Hebrew)

Kipnis, B. A., Aspis, Y., and Barhad, A. (1991) Housing Aid Policy for the Muslim and Christian Villages in Israel. Haifa: The University of Haifa, Haifa and Galilee Research Institute. (Hebrew)

Kipnis, B. A., and Barhad, A. (1991) Housing Aid Policy for the Druze and the Circassian Villages in Israel. Haifa: The University of Haifa, Haifa and Galilee Research Institute. (Hebrew)

Kipnis, B.A., and Mansfeld, Y. (1986) Workplace utilities and commuting patterns: Are they class or place differentiated? Professional Geographer, 38: 160-169

Kravchyk, L. (2003) Lifestyle Attributes of High-Tech R&D Employees: Are They Different from the Lifestyle Attributes of Other Industrial Employees? A Value Stretch Analysis. MSc Thesis, the Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, The Technion, Haifa. (Hebrew)

Kravchyk, L. and Kipnis, B. A. (2004) Similarities and dissimilarities in the evaluation oflifestyle attributes by hi-tech employees in Israel: A value stretch analysis. Tichnun, 1: 17-33. (Hebrew)

Mansfeld, Y. (1983). Commuters' Behavior and Spatial Patterns in the Urban Field of a Metropolis: A Case Study of Haifa Region. MA thesis, Department of Geography, University of Haifa, Haifa. (Hebrew)

Mansfeld, Y. (1987) Destination-choice and spatial behavior of tourists: Evaluating the potential of psychological-geographical collaboration in geography of tourism research. London School of Economics, Geography Discussion Papers, 21:20-44.

Mansfeld, Y. (1 992a) Group differentiated perceptions of social impacts related to tourism development. Professional Geographer, 44: 377-392.

Mansfeld, Y. (1992b) Tourism: Towards a Behavioral Approach. Progress in Planning, 38: 1-92.

Mansfeld, Y. (1995) The Value-stretch model and its implementation in detecting tourists' class different destination choice. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 4: 71-79.

McDowell, L.M. (1997) The new service class: Housing consumption and lifestyle among London bankers in the 1990s. Environment and Planning A, 29:2061-2078.

Schnell, I. and Kipnis, B.A. (1989) Well-being in a pluralistic society: Toward a policy-oriented methodology. Geoforum, 20:303-313.

Schwartz, P. (1996) The Art of Long V'iew. New York: Doubleday.

Schwartz, W. and Schwartz, D. (1998). Living Lightly. Travel in Post-consumer Society. Oxfordshire: Jon Carpenter Pub.

Shapira, R. (1997) A question of lifestyle. Niv Hagimlai, 173: 29. (Hebrew)

Sklair, L. (1994) Capitalism and development in global perspective. In Sklair, L. (ed.) Capitalism and Development .London: Routledge, pp.165-189.

Sklair, L. (2000) The transnational capitalist class and the discourse of globalization. http://www.hp.comIAlso in The Cambridge Review of International Ajfoirs.

Sobel, M.E. (1981). Lifestyle and Social Structure: Couples, Definition, Analysis. New York: Academic press.

Yaniv, N. (2000) Application of the Value Stretch Methodology in Plan Evaluation: Case Study of Israel's 2020 National Plan. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, the University of Haifa, Haifa. (Hebrew)