Relationship between Weather Conditions and Release of Allergen Pollen and Spores to the Air in Haifa

  • Ilanit Helfman University of Haifa
  • Yoav Waisel Tel Aviv University
  • Haim Kutiel University of Haifa
Keywords: Airborne Pollen, Fungal Spores, Meteorological Parameters, Allergy


Daily airborne pollen and fungal spores were collected over one year (1.2.06 – 31.1.07), using a Burkard continuous volumetric pollen trap, located in the center of a neighborhood in Haifa. Twenty one allergenic pollen types and 24 spore types were identified. Daily records of seven main meteorological factors (rainfall, sunshine, main wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure) were gathered too. The aim of the present study is to determine the main pollination/sporulation seasons (MPS)/(MSS), the peak periods (PP), and specific days (SD) for each type of pollen and spores identified, and to find correlations with meteorological factors. The 21 pollen types were divided into five groups according to main pollination season. Spore types were divided into four groups according to their main sporulation season. Positive correlation was found between pollen and spore concentration and mean temperature. Negative correlations were found between pollen concentration and relative humidity and between spore concentration and barometric pressure.


Corden, J. M., Millington, W. M., and Mullins, J. (2003) Long-term trends and regional variation in the aeroallergen Alternaria in Cardiff and Derby UK: Are differences in climate and cereal production having an effect? Aerobiologia, 19: 191-199

Galán C., Tormo, R., Cuevas, J., Infante, F. and Domínguez, E. (1991) Theoretical daily variation patterns of airborne pollen in the South-west of Spain. Grana, 30: 201-209

Gioulekas, D., Balafoutis, C., Damialis, A., Papakosta, D., Gioulekas, G. and Patakas, D. (2004) Fifteen years' records of airborne allergenic pollen and meteorological parameters in Thessaloniki, Greece. International Journal of Biometeorology, 48: 128-136.

Green, B, J., Yli-Panula, E., Dettmann, M., Rutherford, S. and Simpson., R. (2003) Airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere of Brisbane, Australia and relationships with meteorological parameters. Aerobiologia, 19: 47-55.

Hart, M. A., de Dear, R. and Beggs, P. J. (2006) A synoptic climatology of pollen concentrations during the six warmest month in Sydney, Australia. International Journal of Biometeorology, 51: 209-220.

Keinan, N. (1986) Pollen and spores as etiological factors of Hay Fever in Israel, Tel Aviv University (Unpublished ms., Hebrew)

Rantio-Lehtimaki, A. (1991) Sampling airborne pollen and pollen antigens. In D'Amato, G., Spieksma, F. Th. and Bonini, S. (eds.) Allerenic Pollen and Pollinosis in Europe. Blackwell Scientific: Melbourne, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, pp.18-23.

Riberio, H., Cunha, M., and Abreu, I. (2003) Airborne pollen concentration in the region of Braga, Portugal, and its relationship with meteorological parameters. Aerobiologia, 19: 21-27

Rodriguez-Rajo, F.J., Jato, V. and Aira, M.J. (2003) Pollen content in the atmosphere of Lugo (NW Spain) with reference to meteorological factors (1999-2001). Aerobiologia, 19: 213-225.

Stepalska, D., and Wolek, J. (2005) Variation in fungal spore concentrations of selected taxa associated to weather conditions in Cracow, Poland , in 1997. Aerobiologia, 21: 43-52