Detecting the Association between Children Health and Lead Exposure Using Voronoi Polygon Rezoning
AbstractIn this paper we use Voronoi polygons (VP) to test weather more homogenous exposure areas can be generated to reduce “ecological bias”. In the analysis, soil contamination measurements by Lead (Pb) were superimposed upon a layer of small census areas (SCA) and the average exposure for each SCA was calculated. Next, VPs were formed around soil test points, with each polygon containing exactly one Pb soil measurement. Spatial interpolations were also run, to compare their results with the results obtained by SCA averaging and VP rezoning. Next, OLS and Spatial Lag regressions were run to link Pb exposure with the health status of local children, with health information retrieved from the Clalit Health Services’ database. Model fits were consistently higher in the VP models compared to the SCA and interpolation models, indicating that the VP method appeared to improve the models’ explanatory power by reducing exposure misclassification.
Aeromod (2010) ISC-AERMOD View, Lakes Environmental Software.
Aherns, W. and Pigeot, I. (2004) Handbook of Epidemiology. Berlin: Springer.
Anselin, L., Syabri, I. and Kho, Y. (2005) GeoDa: An Introduction to Spatial Data Analysis. Geographical Analysis, 38(1): 5-22.
Bellinger, D., Leviton, A., Waternaux, C., Needleman, H. and Rabinowitz, M. (1987) Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. New England Journal of Medicine, 316(17): 1037-1043.
Benenson, I. and Omer, I. (2003) High-resolution Census data: A simple way to make them useful. Data Science Journal, 2: 117-127.
Benenson, I., Omer, I. and Hatna, E. (2002) Entity-based modeling of urban residential dynamics: The case of Yaffo, Tel Aviv. Environment and Planning, B 29(4): 491-512.
Bohm, G., Galuppo, P. and Vesnaver, A. (2000) 3D adaptive tomography using Delaunay triangles and Voronoi polygons. Geophysical Prospecting, 48(4): 723-744.
Boots, B. (1980) Weighting thiessen polygons. Economic Geography, 56(3): 248-259.
Braun, J. and Sambridge, M. (1995) A numerical method for solving partial differential equations on highly irregular evolving grids. Nature, 376(6542): 655-660.
Dubnov, J., Barchana, M., Rishpon, S., Leventhal, A., Segal, I., Carel, R., and Portnov, B. A. (2007) Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function. Environmental Research, 103(1): 87-98.
ESRI (2007). ARCGIS, ESRI.
Gotway, C. and Young, L. J. (2002) Combining incompatible spatial data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97 (48): 632-647.
Heuvelink, G. (1998) Error Propagation in Environmental Modelling with GIS. London, CRC Press.
Hwang, S., Fitzgerald, E., Cayo, M., Yang, .B., Tarbell, A., and Jacobs, A. (1999) Assessing environmental exposure to PCBs among Mohawks at Akwesasne through the use of geostatistical methods* 1. Environmental Research, 80(2): S189-S199.
Kloog, I., Haim, A. and Portnov, B. A. (2009) Using kernel density function as an urban analysis tool: Investigating the association between nightlight exposure and the incidence of breast cancer in Haifa, Israel. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 33(1): 55-63.
Kosti, R. I. and Panagiotakos, D. B. (2006) The epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents in the world. Central European Journal of Public Health, 14(4): 151.
Ledoux, H. and Gold, C. (2007) Simultaneous storage of primal and dual three-dimensional subdivisions. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 31(4): 393-408.
Minami, M. and ESRI (2000) Using ArcMap: GIS. Redlands, Ca.: ESRI.
Mostafavi, M., Gold, C. and Dakowicz, M. (2003) Delete and insert operations in Voronoi/Delaunay methods and applications* 1. Computers & Geosciences, 29(4): 523-530.
Mushak, P., Michael Davis, J., Crocetti A. F. and Grant, L. D. (1989) Prenatal and postnatal effects of low-level lead exposure: Integrated summary of a report to the US congress on childhood lead poisoning 1. Environmental Research, 50(1): 11-36.
Nriagu, J. O. (1988) A silent epidemic of environmental metal poisoning. Environmental Pollution, 50(1/2): 139-161.
Okabe, A., Boots, B. N. Sugihara, K. and Chiu, S. N. (1992) Spatial Tessellations: Concepts and Applications of Voronoi Diagrams. Chichester: Wiley & Sons.
Portnov, B. A., Dubnov, J. and Barchana, M. (2007) On ecological fallacy, Assessment errors stemming from misguided variable selection, and the effect of aggregation on the outcome of epidemiological study. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 17(1): 106-121.
Portnov, B. A., Dubnov, J. and Barchana, M. (2009) Studying the association between air pollution and lung cancer incidence in a large metropolitan area using a kernel density function. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 43(3): 141-150.
Ritz, B., Yu, F., Fruin, S., Chapa, G., Shaw, G. and Harris, J. (2002). Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(1): 17.
Smith, L. A., Hatcher, J. L. and Wertheimer, R. (2002) The association of childhood asthma with parental employment and welfare receipt. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 57(1): 11-15.
Thiessen, A. (1911) Precipitation averages for large areas. Monthly Weather Review, 39(7): 1082-1089.
Thornton, I., Davies, D., Watt, J. and Quinn, M. (1990) Lead exposure in young children from dust and soil in the United Kingdom. Environmental Health Perspectives, 89: 55.
Voronoi, G. and Reine, Z. (1908). For the origin of the concept of Voronoi polyhedra. Angew Mathematics, 134: 198.
Wakefield, J. and Shaddick, G. (2006) Health-exposure modeling and the ecological fallacy. Biostatistics, 7(3): 438.
Walling, D. and He, Q. (1999) Using fallout lead-210 measurements to estimate soil erosion on cultivated land. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63(5): 1404-1412.
Wang, L., Parker, D. B. Parnell, C. B., Lacey, R. E. and Shaw, B. W. (2006) Comparison of CALPUFF and ISCST3 models for predicting downwind odor and source emission rates. Atmospheric Environment, 40(25): 4663-4669.
Wang, Y. and Lobstein, T. (2006) Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 1(1): 11-25.
Weisstein, W. E. (2009). "Voronoi Polygon ",from http://mathworld.wolfram.com/VoronoiPolygon.html.
Yogev-Baggio, T., Bibi, H., Dubnov, J., Or-Hen, K., Carel, R. and Portnov, B. (2010) Who is affected more by air pollution--Sick or healthy? Some evidence from a health survey of schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Northern Israel. Health & Place, 16(2): 399-408.
- The contributor(s) (authors) warrant that the entire work is original and unpublished; it is submitted only to this Journal and all text, data, figures/tables or other illustrations included in this work are completely original and unpublished, and these have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere in any form or media whatsoever.
- The contributor(s) warrant that the work contains no unlawful or libelous statements and opinions and liable materials of any kind whatsoever, does not infringe on any copyrights, intellectual property rights, personal rights or rights of any kind of others, nor contains any plagiarized, fraudulent, improperly attributed materials, instructions, procedures, information or ideas that might cause any harm, damage, injury, losses or costs of any kind to person or property.
- The contributor(s) retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Geography Research Forum may disseminate the content of the publications and publications’ Meta data in text, image, or other print and electronic formats to providers of research databases (e.g. EBSCO, GeoBase, JSTOR) to facilitate publications' exposure.