Unintended Effects of Urban and Housing Policies on Integration - “White” Discontent in the Dutch City
AbstractResidential environments are a product of urban and housing policies and household responses. These environments develop as physical and social territories and have their own impacts on voting patterns. These specificities relate to several spheres of life, including political preferences and associated voting behavior. In this paper we argue that support for Right-wing Radical Populist Parties (RRPP) is firmly related to and affected by the production of social patterns and specific residential environments. The relation may be direct, through protest or discontent with socio-spatial processes and policies, or indirect through social networks. Empirical support for these statements is based on analyses of voting data from the city of The Hague, The Netherlands. The analyses suggest that there are three types of neighborhoods where different explanations for RRPP support are salient: native working class neighborhoods (where the so-called ethnic competition thesis is evident); ethnically-mixed urban neighborhoods (where social isolation and “hunkering down” would be key processes), and (lower) middle class suburban neighborhoods (where the dominant explanation may be related to policy protest).
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