Smooth Cohabitation in Amsterdam? The Impact of Increased Tenure Mix on Overall Neighborhood Confidence

  • Lex Veldboer University of Amsterdam
  • Reinout Kleinhans Delft University of Technology
Keywords: Gentrification, Urban Renewal, Tenure Mix, Ethnic Diversity, Neighborhood Confidence


Several of Amsterdam’s inner-city areas that formerly were dominated by affordable social and private housing are undergoing processes of gentrification. Most of the gentrification literature highlights tensions and avoidance between classes. Is this also the case in Amsterdam, or has an increased tenure mix in the Dutch capital had a smoother impact? We assumed that in areas with increased tenure mix in Amsterdam, neighborhood confidence levels would be increasing. Results analysed from the 2001 and 2009 biannual Living in Amsterdam Surveys showed that an increase in owner-occupancy rates was correlated with a small, but significant, increase in overall neighborhood confidence. Nor was there any evidence that gentrification led to widespread displacement of ethnic groups. Case studies of two gentrifying areas produced similar results. These results which question the usually pessimistic discussion of gentrification in the literature can be explained by a mild version of gentrification in Amsterdam. The paper discusses the prospects for such smooth cohabitation of classes continuing in Amsterdam in the future.


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