Post-Project Evaluation of China’s Urban Slum Resettlement Program: The Case of Fushun City
AbstractUrban slum redevelopment is a common problem facing global urbanization. One big difficulty when redeveloping an urban slum is to realize the sustainable renewal of the redeveloped area. Over the past ten years, the progress made in urban slum redevelopment of Chinese cities attracts worldwide attention. Taking Fushun, one of the first old industrial cities to carry out large-scale urban slum redevelopment plan as the case city, this article conducted a Post-Project Evaluation of the Penghuqu redevelopment plan by using the method of questionnaire survey as well as interviews with households and local officials. The aim is to elaborate on the influences of Penghuqu redevelopment project on the long-term sustainable improvements to the people, the communities and the districts involved. The results show that the Penghuqu redevelopment project improved resident's livelihood and community infrastructures. However, it also weakens the close neighbourhood relations of original communities. The sustainable development of resettlements is still facing challenges from the single function of redeveloped areas, aging facilities and resident's succession.
ADB (1998) Handbook on Resettlement: A guideline to Good Practice. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
Cernea, M. M. (1988) Involuntary Resettlement in Development Projects: Policy Guidelines in World Bank-financed Projects. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Department of Northeastern Region Revitalization, National Development and Reform Commission of China (2013) The survey of Penghuqu redevelopment plan in resource-exhausted areas of Fushun. Last accessed: 14th March 2013, http://www.sdpc.gov.cn/zjgx/t20120504_477829.htm. (In Chinese)
Carney, D. (2013) Sustainable Livelihood Approaches: Progress and Possibilities for Change, Department for International Development, UK Government, last accessed April 2013, http://www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0812/SLA_Progress.pdf
Field, E. and Kremer, M. (2005) Impact Evaluation for Slum Upgrading Interventions. Doing Impact Evaluation Series No.3, World Bank Thematic Group on Poverty Analysis, Monitoring and Impact Evaluation.
Gu, C.L. and Kestloot, M. (1997) Social polarisation and segregation phenomenon in Beijing. Acta Geographica Sinica, 52(5): 385-393. (In Chinese)
Huang, Y. and Li, S. (2014) Housing Inequality in Chinese Cities. London and New York: Routledge.
Jim, Y. (2000) The Incidence of slum clearance in England and Wales, 1955-1985. Urban History, 27(2):234-254.
Koster, M. and Nuijten, M. (2012) From preamble to post-project frustrations: The shaping of a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil. Antipode, 44: 175–196. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2011.00894.x
Li, H.P. and Yang, Q.R. (2012) The gradual renewal mode toward social integration of Chinese low-income neighborhood: Study on 'magnetic community. Urban Planning International, 27(2): 88-94. (In Chinese)
Ni, P.F., Banji, O. O. and Chen, F. (2012) Probing into the Development Mode of Low-income Settlements in the Urbanization Process: The Experience of Shanty Towns Reconstruction in Liaoning, China. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press.(In Chinese)
Sejal, P. and Ritika, M. (2014) Impoverishment assessment of slum dwellers after off-site and on-site resettlement: A case of Indore. Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, (15):104-127.
Tang L. and Wei, S.Y. (2008) A research on shantytowns reconstruction in Fushun. MA thesis: Northeastern University Social Sciences College. (In Chinese)
Teresa, P. (1997) Slum upgrading revisited：An evaluation of the Tondo Foreshore urban development project. Master thesis, the University of British Columbia.
UNCHS (1991) Evaluation of relocation experience. Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT).
Vichai, V. and Ranjith, P. (2006) Slum relocation projects in Bangkok: what has contributed to their success or failure? Habitat International, 30(1):157–174.
Wang, M. Y., Cheng, Z. M., Zhang, P. Y., Tong, L. J. and Ma, Y. J. (2013) Old Industrial Cities Seeking New Road of Reindustrialization: Models of Revitalizing Northeast China. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing
Wang, Y. P. (2005) Low-income communities and urban poverty in China. Urban Geography, 26(3):222-242.
Wei, L.H. and Li, Z.G. (2006) Housing dilemma of urban poor in China and its problem-solving pattern. Urban Planning Forum,2:53-58. (In Chinese)
Wu, F. L. (2004) Urban poverty and marginalization under market transition: The case of Chinese cities. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(2):401-423.
Yuan, Y., Wu, F.L. and Xu, X.Q. (2009) The spatial pattern of poverty and deprivation in transitional Chinese city: Analysis of area-based indicators and individual data. Acta Geographica Sinica, 64(6):753-763. (In Chinese)
Zheng, W.S., Ding, S.B. and Wang, X.F., et al. (2008) Shantytowns reconstruction and city antipoverty in resources-dependent cities in northeast China. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 28(2): 156-161. (In Chinese)
- The contributor(s) (authors) warrant that the entire work is original and unpublished; it is submitted only to this Journal and all text, data, figures/tables or other illustrations included in this work are completely original and unpublished, and these have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere in any form or media whatsoever.
- The contributor(s) warrant that the work contains no unlawful or libelous statements and opinions and liable materials of any kind whatsoever, does not infringe on any copyrights, intellectual property rights, personal rights or rights of any kind of others, nor contains any plagiarized, fraudulent, improperly attributed materials, instructions, procedures, information or ideas that might cause any harm, damage, injury, losses or costs of any kind to person or property.
- The contributor(s) retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Geography Research Forum may disseminate the content of the publications and publications’ Meta data in text, image, or other print and electronic formats to providers of research databases (e.g. EBSCO, GeoBase, JSTOR) to facilitate publications' exposure.