Zimbabwe’s Land Question in the Context of Large-Scale Land Based Investments
The history of land in Zimbabwe is mired in complexity. The emergence of new
large-scale forms of investments in Zimbabwe has to be understood within this
complexity. Colonisation initiated a protracted land struggle in which race, gender, class, ethnicity and nationality have become important sites of contestation. This paper outlines the evolution of the land question in Zimbabwe, highlighting key junctures and events since colonisation. Such a historical analysis is important if we are to understand the emergence of large-scale land deals geared towards bio fuel production. Large-scale land deals reflect the latest point on the continuum of the land question, which has consumed Zimbabwe’s political and social spheres since colonisation. What these deals mean in the long-term might not be clear at the moment but they represent another complex turn in an emotive issue that has led to many contestations.
Andrew, N. and Sadomba, W. (2006) Zimbabwe. Land Hunger and the War Veteran Led Occupations Movement in 2000, Critique Internationale, 31, 126–144.
Bhatasara, S. 2011. Land reform and diminishing spaces for women in Zimbabwe: A gender analysis of the socio-economic and political consequences of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. MSc Thesis, Maastricht Graduate School of Governance, Netherlands
Behrman, J., Meinzen-Dick, R. and Quisumbing, A. (2011) Where is Gender in the Land Grab Debate? http://www.commercialpressuresonland.org/opinion-pieces/where-gender-land-grab-debate
-----. (2012) The gender implications of large scale land deals. Journal of Peasant Studies, 39(1), 49-79
Borras Jr., S.M., McMichael, P. and Scoones, I. (2010) The politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change: Editors' introduction', Journal of Peasant Studies, 37(4), 575 -592
Chaumba, J., Scoones, I. and Woolmer, W. (2003) From Jambanja to planning: The
Reassertion of Technocracy in Land Reform in South-Eastern Zimbabwe? Journal of Modern African Studies, 41 (4): 533–554.
Chiweshe, M.K. (2012) Farm Level Institutions in Emergent Communities in Post Fast Track Zimbabwe: Case of Mazowe District, DPhil. Thesis, Rhodes University.
-----. (2013) Accountability issues in large scale land deals in Zimbabwe. In Murisa, T (ed.) An Analysis of Transparency and Accountability in Land Sector Governance in Zimbabwe, Harare: Transparency International Zimbabwe, 65–74.
Chiweshe, M.K., Chakona, L. and Helliker, K. (2014) Patriarchy, women, land and livelihoods on A1 farms in Zimbabwe. Journal of Asian and African Studies, doi: 10.1177/0021909614541083
Chiweshe, M.K. and Mutopo, P. (2014) National and international actors in the orchestration of land deals in Zimbabwe: What is in it for smallholder farmers? In Mihyo, P. (ed.) International Land Deals in East and Southern Africa, Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 243-274.
-----. (2015) Class and race complexities in understanding large scale land deals as new forms of imperialism in Zimbabwe. In Ness, I. and Cope, Z. The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism, New York: Palgrave McMillan, 293 - 307.
Costantino, A. (2016) The dark side of the boom: Land grabbing in dependent countries in the twenty-first century. International Critical Thought, 6(1), 79-100
Corson, C. and MacDonald, K.I. (2012) Enclosing the global commons: the convention on biological diversity and green grabbing. Journal of Peasant Studies, 39(2), 263-283.
Cotula, L. (2012) The international political economy of the global land rush: A critical appraisal of trends, scale, geography and drivers. Journal of Peasant Studies, 39 (3-4), 649-680.
Cotula, L., Vermeulen, S., Leonard, R. And Keeley, J., (2009) Land Grab or Development Opportunity? Agricultural Investment And International Land Deals In Africa, London/Rome: IIED/FAO/IFAD.
Daniel, S. and Mittal, A. (2009) The Great Land Grab: Rush for the World’s Farmland Threatens Food Security for the Poor. Oakland, California: The Oakland Institute.
De Villiers, B. (2003) Land Reform: Issues and Challenges – A Comparative Overview of Experiences in Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and Australia. Konrad Adenauer Foundation Occasional Papers
ElHadary, E.Y.A and Obeng-Odoom, F. (2012) Conventions, changes, and contradictions in land governance in Africa: The story of land grabbing in North Sudan and Ghana. Africa Today, 59(2), 58-78
Exner, A., Bartels, L., Windhaber, M., Fritz, S., See, L., Politti, E., and Hochleithner, S., (2015) Constructing landscapes of value: Capitalist investment for the acquisition of marginal or unused land—The case of Tanzania. Land Use Policy, 42, 652–663
Friis, C. and Reenberg, A. (2010). Land grab in Africa: Emerging land system drivers in a teleconnected world. GLP Report No. 1. GLP-IPO, Copenhagen.
Gibbon, P. (1995) Structural Adjustment and the Working Poor in Zimbabwe. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet: UppsaIa,
Goebel, A. (2005) Zimbabwe‘s fast track land reform: What about women? Gender, Place and Culture, 12(2), 145–72.
Hammar, A and Raftopoulos, B. (2003) Introduction. In A. Hammar, B. Raftopoulos and S. Jensen (Eds.) Zimbabwe's Unfinished Business: Rethinking Land, State and Nation in the Context of Crisis. Harare: Weaver Press, 1-47.
Helliker, K.D. (2006) A Sociological Analysis of Intermediary Non-Governmental Organisations and Land Reform in Contemporary Zimbabwe. DPhil. Thesis, Rhodes University
Kinsey, B.H. (2004) Zimbabwe's land reform programme: Underinvestment in post-conflict transformation. World Development, 32(10), 1669-1696.
Levien, M. (2012) The land question: Special economic zones and the political economy of dispossession in India. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 39(3-4), 933-969.
Makochekamwa, A. (2012) Foreign land acquisitions in Africa – An analysis of the impacts of individual land deals on local communities, Presented at the World Bank Conference on land and Poverty, 23rd – 26th April 2012.
Makumbe, J.W. (1999) The political dimension of the land reform process in Zimbabwe. Unpublished paper. Harare, University of Zimbabwe.
Mandihlare, C.M. (2013) Large Scale Land Acquisition and its Implication on Rural Livelihoods: The Chisumbanje Ethanol Plant Case, Zimbabwe, Masters Thesis, ISS, Hague
Marongwe, N. (2008) Interrogating Zimbabwe’s Fast Track Land Reform and Resettlement Programme: A Focus on Beneficiary Selection. PhD Thesis, University of the Western Cape.
Masiiwa, M. (2005) The fast track resettlement programme in Zimbabwe: Disparity between policy design and implementation. The Round Table, 94(379), 217–224.
Matondi, P. (2007) Institutional and Policy Issues in the Context of Land Reform and Resettlement Programme in Zimbabwe. In Khombe, T. (ed.) The Livestock Sector after the Fast Track Land Reforms in Zimbabwe. Bulawayo: National University for Science and Technology, 32-45.
Mbaya, S. (2001) Land Reform in Zimbabwe: Lessons and Prospects from a Poverty Alleviation Perspective. Paper presented at the Conference on Land Reform and Poverty Alleviation in Southern Africa, The Southern African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN).
Merian Research and CRBM. (2010). The Vultures of Land Grabbing, (http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/land/68535).
Montfort, J. (2007) Despite Obstacles, Biofuels Continue to Surge, Worldwatch, 24 April.
Moyo, S. (2000) Land Reform under Structural Adjustment in Zimbabwe: Land Use Change in the Mashonaland Provinces, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrika Institutet.
-----. 2001. The land occupation movement and democratisation in Zimbabwe:
Contradictions of neo liberalism. Journal of International Studies, 30 (2), 311–330.
-----. (2004) The Land Question in Africa: Research Perspectives and Questions, Conference on 'The Agrarian Constraint and Poverty Reduction: Macroeconomic Lessons for Africa', Addis Ababa, 17-18 December, 2004 (http://www.sarpn.org/documents/d0001097/P1211-Moyo_Dec2004.pdf).
Mujere, J and Dombo, S. (2011) Large Scale Investment Projects and Land Grabs in Zimbabwe: The Case of Nuanetsi Ranch Bio- Diesel Project. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing, 6-8 April 2011, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.
Mutopo, P. (2012) Corporate Land Investments and Rural Women in Zambia, Study Commissioned by OXFAM Tanzania under the GROW Campaign, Dar Salaam.
Mutopo, P. and Chiweshe, M.K. (2014) Water resources and biofuel production after the fast-track land reform in Zimbabwe. African Identities, 12 (1), 124-138
Mushimbo, C. (2005) Land Reform in Post-Independence Zimbabwe: A Case of Britain's Neo-Colonial Intrancigence? Master of Arts Thesis, Graduate College of Bowling Green State University.
Obeng-Odoom, F. (2015) Understanding land grabs in Africa: Insights from Marxist and Georgist political economics. Review of Black Political Economy, 42, 337–354
Obeng-Odoom, F. and Stilwell, F. (2013) Security of tenure in international development discourse. International Development Planning Review, 35(4), 315-333
Palmer, R. (1977) Land and Racial Discrimination in Rhodesia, London: Heinemann.
Sachikonye, L.M. (2003). The Situation of Commercial Farm Workers after Land Reform in Zimbabwe, A Report Prepared for the Farm Community Trust of Zimbabwe.
Scoones, I., Marongwe, N., Mavedzenge, B., Murimbarimba, F., Mahenehene, J. and Sukume, C. (2010) Zimbabwe’s Land Reform: Myths and Realities. Oxford: James Currey
Smaller C. and Mann, H. (2009) A Thirst for Distant Land: Foreign Investment in Agricultural Land and Water. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Thompson C.B. (2008). Agrofuels from Africa, not for Africa. Review of African Political Economy, 117: 516-519.
Tollin, K. and Törnqvist, M. (2011). Feministisk teorirrligabilder, Malmö: Liber AB
Tshuma, L. (1997). A Matter of (in) Justice: Law, State and the Agrarian Question in Zimbabwe, Harare: SAPES Books.
UN-Energy (2007) Sustainable Bioenergy: A Framework for Decision Makers, New York: UN
Woodhouse, P. and Ganho, A.S. (2011) Is Water the Hidden Agenda of Agricultural Land Acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa? Global Land Grabbing Conference organised 6-8 April 2011 by the Land Deals Politics Initiative (LDPI)
- The contributor(s) (authors) warrant that the entire work is original and unpublished; it is submitted only to this Journal and all text, data, figures/tables or other illustrations included in this work are completely original and unpublished, and these have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere in any form or media whatsoever.
- The contributor(s) warrant that the work contains no unlawful or libelous statements and opinions and liable materials of any kind whatsoever, does not infringe on any copyrights, intellectual property rights, personal rights or rights of any kind of others, nor contains any plagiarized, fraudulent, improperly attributed materials, instructions, procedures, information or ideas that might cause any harm, damage, injury, losses or costs of any kind to person or property.
- The contributor(s) retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Geography Research Forum may disseminate the content of the publications and publications’ Meta data in text, image, or other print and electronic formats to providers of research databases (e.g. EBSCO, GeoBase, JSTOR) to facilitate publications' exposure.