Direct U.S. Investment in Israeli Manufacturing: the Sectoral and Spatial Components
Direct U.S. investment in Israel stands out as an anomaly in the Middle East as it consists mainly of investments in manufacturing. Such investments are attributed to the locational and infrastructural advantages of Israel, as well as the Israeli government's having created a legal and financial environment conducive to foreign investment. Specific industries to attract investment include electrical and electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, precision instruments, and metals. The choices in part reflect the availability of native Israeli research and development capacity. The spatial distribution of the investments is concentrated in Tel Aviv and Haifa, although some spread to other areas as seen, albeit not at the rate of native investments. Such investments have contributed to higher employment and exports; data are not available to measure whether or not other theoretical advantages have been realized.
Angel, J. L. (various years). Directory of American Firms Operating in Foreign Countries. New York: Uniworld Business Publications, Inc.
Bertin, G. Y. (1970). "Foreign Investment in France." In Foreign Investment: The Experience of Host Countries, Litvak, I. A. and Maule, C. J. (eds.), New York: Praeger, 105-122.
Blackbourn, A. (1972). "Location of Foreign Owned Manufacturing Plants in the Republic of Ireland." Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geograjie, 63, 438-443.
Carmi, R. (1968). "The Encouragement of Capital Investment in Israel." Israel Economic Forum, 16,9-11.
Carr, D. W. (1978). Foreign Investment and Development in the Southwest Pacific, with special Reference to Australia and Indonesia. New York: Praeger.
Davies, G. (1969). "United Kingdom Investment." In Helen Hughes and You Poh Seng (eds.) Foreign Investment and Industrialization in Singapore, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 46-61.
Dean, M. (1983). "Electronic Publishing Tool Wins Industrial Innovation Award. Jerusalem Post International Edition, 9-15 October.
deLuis, F. and Canseco, E. (1970). "Foreign Investment in Spain." In Isaiah A. Litvak and Christopher L. Maule, (eds.), New York: 335-354.
Derwa, L. (1970). "Foreign Investment in Belgium." In Litvak, l. A. and Maule, C. J. (eds.) Foreign Investment: The Experience of Host Countries, New York: Praeger, 64-75.
The Development of Manufacturing Industry in Egypt, Israel, and Turkey (1958). New York: U.N. Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
Dicken, P., and Lloyd P. E. (1980). "Patterns and Processes of Change in the Spatial Distribution of Foreign Controlled Manufacturing Employment in the United Kingdom, 1963-1975." Environmental Planning A, 12, 1405-1426.
Dunning, J. H. (1970). "Foreign Investment in the United Kingdom." In Litvak, I. A. and Maule, C. J. (eds.), Foreign Investment: The Experience of Host Countries, New York: Praeger, 205-258.
Edwards, J. P. (1971). "Establishing a Business in Israel." Overseas Business Reports, OBR71-026.
The Encouragement of Capital Investment Laws (1976). State of Israel Investment Authority, Jerusalem.
Etrogi Directory of Israel (annual), A. Etrogi, Tel Aviv.
Farmer, R. N. (1972). Benevolent Aggression. New York: David McKay Company, Inc.
Gradus, Y. and Krakover, S. (1976). "The Changing Spatial Structure of Manufacturing in Israel." In Amiran, D. H. K. and Ben-Arieh, Y. (eds.), Geography in Israel. Jerusalem: Tzur-Ot Press, 187-217.
Grewlich, K. W. (1978). Direct Investment in the OECD Countries. Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijtholf and Noordholf.
Halevi, N., and Klinov-Malul, R. (1968). The Economic Development of Israel. New York: Praeger.
Hayter, R. (1982). "Truncation, the International Firm, and Regional policy. Area 14, 277-282.
Hekman, J. S. (1980). "The Future of High Technology Industry in New England: A Case Study of Computers." New England Economic Review, 5-17.
Hughes, H. (1969). "Australian Investment." In Hughes, H. and Seng, Y. P. (eds.) Foreign Investment and Industrialization in Singapore, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 62-85.
Hughes, H. (1969). "Conclusions." In Hughes, H. and Seng, Y. P. (eds.), Foreign Investment and Industrialization in Singapore, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
IL&B (Business International) (1983), Israel.
The Israel Directory. The Register of Commerce and Industry In Israel (annual). Tel Aviv: Register of Commerce and Industry in Israel.
Israel Investors' Manual (1968). Tel Aviv: Government of Israel Investment Authority.
Kobayashi, N. (1970). "Foreign Investment in Japan." In Litvak, L. A. and Maule, C. J. (eds.), Foreign Investment: The Experience of Host Countries, New York: Praeger, 123-160.
Lippe, A. (1956). "Development of Approved Enterprises." Israel Economic Bulletin, VII, 14-21.
Luey, P. (1969). "Hongkong Investment." In Hughes, H. and Seng, Y. P. (eds.) Foreign Investment and Industrialization in Singapore, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 112-139.
Medhord, P. B. (1970). "Foreign Investment in India." In Litvak, LA. and Maule, C. A. (eds.), Foreign Investment: The Experience of Host Countries, New York: Praeger, 180-302.
Meier, G. M. (1964). Leading Issues in Development Economics, New York: Oxford University Press.
Michaely, M. (1975). Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Israel. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Mikesell, R. E (1983). Foreign Investment in Mining Projects. Case Studies of Recent Experiences, Cambridge: Oelgeschlager, Gunn, and Rain.
Perkins, J. 0. N. (1970). "Foreign Investment in Australia." In Litvak, L A. and
Maule, C. J. (eds.), Foreign Investment: The Experience of Host Countries, New York: Praeger, 31-63.
Programme for Israel's Industrial Development. Second Outlook 1965/1970 (1964). Jerusalem: Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
Rabbo, S. A. (1980). American Investment in Israel." Search, I, 113-134.
Saham, J. (1980). British Industrial Investment in Malaysia, 1963-1971, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Selya, R. M. (1983). "Locational Orientation of Foreign Owned Industry In Taiwan." Asian Profile, 11, 535-552.
Statistical Abstract of Israel (annual) Jerusalem: Central Bureau of Statistics.
Steed, G. P. E (1982). Threshold Firms. Backing Canada's Winners. Ottawa: Science Council of Canada.
Taylor, P. 1. (1977). Quantitative Methods in Geography: An Introduction to Spatial Analysis. Boston: Houghton Miffiin Co.
Vicker, R. (1973). "Israel Thrives, but Not Enough for Israelis, Who Seek More Investments by Foreigners." Wall Street Journal, 31 May, 34.
Watts, H. D. (1980). "The Location of European Direct Investment in the United Kingdom." Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geograjie, 71, 3-14.
- The contributor(s) (authors) warrant that the entire work is original and unpublished; it is submitted only to this Journal and all text, data, figures/tables or other illustrations included in this work are completely original and unpublished, and these have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere in any form or media whatsoever.
- The contributor(s) warrant that the work contains no unlawful or libelous statements and opinions and liable materials of any kind whatsoever, does not infringe on any copyrights, intellectual property rights, personal rights or rights of any kind of others, nor contains any plagiarized, fraudulent, improperly attributed materials, instructions, procedures, information or ideas that might cause any harm, damage, injury, losses or costs of any kind to person or property.
- The contributor(s) retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- The contributor(s) are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- Geography Research Forum may disseminate the content of the publications and publications’ Meta data in text, image, or other print and electronic formats to providers of research databases (e.g. EBSCO, GeoBase, JSTOR) to facilitate publications' exposure.